There are no categorical synonyms for this term. Strengthen or get an chemical reaction or effect with the glass surface. the tools are kept. A collective term for bubbles, metal and glass particles, and other foreign materials that have been added to the glass for decorative effects. Because of this, the painter must apply the pigments in the reverse of the normal order, beginning with the highlights and ending with the background. This technique was developed in the late 19th century. The cause by a sudden shift of temperature hot or cold causing the glass to break, crack or shatter. A glass project is handmade and was not assisted by machinery. Instead of being applied to a vessel with a wad, the pontil is attached to a flat plate of glass called a “post,” which is then affixed to the base or footring of the vessel. This is made by blowing the gather in a vertically ribbed dip mold, extracting and twisting it to produce a swirled effect, and then redipping it in the same or another dip mold to create a second set of ribs. Sits around A table that the artist uses as a rest for a piece prior to putting it in the annealer. Flat glass blanks are made into vessels by sagging them over or into former molds. Claw beakers were made in Europe between the fifth and seventh centuries A.D. Removing excess molten glass off of the working piece. A furnace that the glass sits inside a crucible which sits inside the furnace. A small ornamental object of white porcelainlike material, made to be encased in glass. This is achieved by repeatedly plunging a parison of hot glass into cold water and withdrawing it quickly. The technique of manipulating adjacent vertical ribs with pincers to form a diamond pattern. Some artist use the sandblasting process to remove enough glass to actually go through the glass for different effects. A forming technique in which molten glass is poured or ladled into a mold of compacted sand. Work that is perforated. & tubes of glass in order to make a variety of glass objects. An allover pattern of raised four-sided diamonds of pyramidal form, each with a sharp apex, cut with a mitered wheel. Strictly speaking, this process is a form of staining. They may be enameled, engraved, or gilded with representations of hops or barley. Glass containing layers of different colors. See also Inlay. A material produced by grinding glass into a fine powder, adding a binder to create a paste, and adding a fluxing medium to facilitate melting. Weathering usually involves the leaching of alkali from the glass by water, leaving behind siliceous weathering products that are often laminar. A fired silica body containing small amounts of alkali, and varying greatly in hardness depending on the degree of sintering. to the annealer. An atmosphere in a kiln or furnace that is deficient in oxygen. In glassworking, (1) a lathe shaft with a hollow end, designed to receive spindles; (2) a metal rod around which beads and other small objects can be formed. Clay capable of being subjected to a high temperature without fusing, and therefore used for making crucibles in which glass batches are melted. Decoration consisting of bubbles of air trapped in the glass in a diamond-shaped pattern. The object is then immersed in hydrofluoric acid, or a mixture of dilute hydrofluoric acid and potassium fluoride is applied to etch the exposed areas of glass. Venetian marbled glass is known as calcedonio. that are used to carry the glass from the knock off table The oven used for annealing glassware. The melting of the batch may require a temperature of about 2400°-2750°F (1300°-1500°C), whereas the muffle kiln may require a temperature of only about 950°- 1300°F (500°-700°C). The first borosilicate glass was created by Otto Schott in 1882. A mold with the same shape as the desired object, usually a vessel. It is used for making narrow objects such as beads and pendants. 2200 degrees farenheight. After the glass is cooled, it is possible to further emphasize these areas by carving and engraving. source of clear (or color) instead of using batch. Stones consist of unmelted particles of batch, fragments of refractory material from the pot, or devitrification crystals. A decorating technique whereby pieces of hot glass are applied to still molten glass and marvered into the surface, creating an inlaid effect. A rough-textured granular surface results where the glass comes into contact with the sand. The word was originally applied to a device, invented in the second century B.C., in which a closed, water-filled vessel, when heated, was made to rotate by jets of steam issuing from one or more projecting, bent tubes. Slivers of waste glass formed by trimming glassware during manufacture. The glass is forced against the inner surfaces of the mold and assumes its shape, together with any decoration that it bears. This is called the “pontil mark.”. It often leaves an irregular or ring-shaped scar on the base when removed. For example, Burmese glass shades from yellow to pink. High heat thermometer used to measure temp inside furnace or gloryhole. Any object embedded in the surface of a larger object. This technique was patented by W. H., B. In glassmaking, a soluble salt consisting mainly of potassium carbonate or sodium carbonate. A technique involving the application, to the surface of an object, of substances that, when heated to about 1470°F (800°C), fuse and create an effect similar to weathering, thereby imitating glass from an archeological excavation. Mold-blown decoration that has two sets of ribs. In antiquity, Egyptian blue was made by heating together silica, lime, and a copper-containing ingredient. A metal rod with a spring clip that grips the foot of a vessel and so avoids the use of a pontil. Jemima threw her full beer glass at Pavel. The process of applying two layers of decoration, the first being covered with a skin of glass that serves as the surface for the second. (2) On lacy-pattern glass, the stippling is part of the decoration of the mold. A single piece of glass formed by fusing several canes or rods. The first glass paperweights were made in the early 1840s in Venice and France, and their manufacture spread rapidly to other parts of Europe and the United States. Decoration of this type, however, had been made since the 13th century, and the term reverse foil engraving is preferable. A wooden tool used to flatten the bottom of a piece. a small gas oven that is used to preheat the steel pipes; many glory holes have pipe warmers built into the side. Traditionally and in modern furnace working, the gaffer blows through the tube, slightly inflating the gob, which is then manipulated into the required form by swinging it, rolling it on a marver, or shaping it with tools or in a mold. A type of decoration, produced in Bohemia and Austria in the 18th century, in which a design in gold or silver leaf is incorporated between two vessels that fit together precisely. brought down to room temperature overnight so that it does A decorative effect that causes the surface of the glass to resemble cracked ice. A pattern of spiraling vertical ribs made by inflating the parison in a dip mold with vertical ribs, withdrawing it, and twisting it before continuing to inflate. The term “glassy faience” is often used to describe a faience in which the reactions have proceeded to such an extent that the glass phase defines the visual appearance of the material. It is misleading because glass is not a metallic substance, and its use is discouraged. A volcanic mineral that was the first form of natural glass used by humans. The canes imitate a bouquet of flowers and leaves, the flat top of which is parallel to the bottom of the paperweight. The artist can roll the glass on this An oven used to process a substance by burning, drying, or heating. In Hebrew, this means ‘congratulations.’. Battledores are used to smooth the bottoms of vessels and other objects. See also Cutting and Copper-wheel engraving. Hand presses were used extensively in Europe for making chandelier parts. A term used by Frederick Carder (1863-1963) to describe openwork objects that he made by lost wax casting. Any crystalline inclusion present in glass. An air-filled void, which may be of almost any shape. The couldren (or bowl) that holds the glass Inexpensive pressed glass with vivid gold, orange, and purple iridescence, made in the United States between about 1895 and 1924. Using grinding wheels, wet sanders, a diamond Most surviving aeolipiles, however, are Islamic; they are believed to be containers.

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